Moyamoya Disease

Moyamoya disease is a rare blood vessel (vascular) disorder in which the carotid artery in the skull becomes blocked or narrowed, reducing blood flow to your brain. Tiny blood vessels then open up at the base of the brain in an attempt to supply the brain with blood.

Moyamoya disease is found all over the world, but it’s more common in East Asian countries, especially Korea, Japan and China. This may possibly be due to certain genetic factors in those populations.

Moyamoya disease may occur at any age, though symptoms most commonly occur between 5 and 10 years of age in children and between 30 and 50 years of age in adults.

The first symptom of moyamoya disease is usually stroke or recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA), especially in children. Adults also may experience these symptoms but also experience bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke) from abnormal brain vessels.

Accompanying signs and symptoms of moyamoya disease related to reduced blood flow to the brain include:

1️⃣ Headache.
2️⃣ Seizures.
3️⃣ Weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body.
4️⃣ Visual disturbances.
5️⃣ Difficulties with speaking or understanding others (aphasia).
6️⃣ Developmental delays.
7️⃣ Involuntary movements.

These symptoms can be triggered by exercise, crying, coughing, straining or fever.

You should seek immediate medical attention, if you notice any signs or symptoms of a stroke or TIA, even if they seem to fluctuate or disappear.

Think “FAST” and do the following:

1️⃣ Face: Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
2️⃣ Arms: Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? Or is one arm unable to rise up?
3️⃣ Speech: Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is his or her speech slurred or strange?
4️⃣ Time: If you observe any of these signs, call 999/912/911 immediately for emergency medical treatment.

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